Trading Bloc

A trade bloc is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and others) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states. It is a group of countries within a geographical region that protect themselves from imports from non-members. A group of countries who have joined together to promote trade. This might be through relaxing protectionist barriers or even having a common currency.

Examples of trading blocs include :

EU-European Union), NAFTA -North American Free Trade Agreement), ASEAN-Association of Southeast Asian Nations, EEA – The European Economic Area, CEFTA -The Central European Free Trade Agreement.

Types of trade Bloc

Preferential Trade Area: Preferential Trade Areas (PTAs) exist when countries within a geographical region agree to reduce or eliminate tariff barriers on selected goods imported from other members of the area. This is often the first small step towards the creation of a trading bloc.

Free Trade Area: Free Trade Areas (FTAs) are created when two or more countries in a region agree to reduce or eliminate barriers to trade on all goods coming from other members.

Customs Union: Countries that belong to customs unions agree to reduce or abolish trade barriers between themselves and agree to establish common tariffs and quotas with respect to outsiders.

Common Market: This is a customs union in which the members also agree to reduce restrictions on the movement of factors of production – such as people and finance – as well as reducing barriers on the sale of goods

Advantages of Trade Bloc
• Firms can enjoy economies of scale, in a trading bloc, firms can produce goods and services with a lower average cost because trading blocs allows firm to have large scale of production
• Trading blocs brings firms closer to each other and create greater competition, consumers will be benefited with better quality of goods and services in a lower price, they will have more choices
• Firms within the bloc can enjoy a tariff free environment
• Countries within the trading bloc can have more international bargaining power

Disadvantages of Trade Bloc
• unfair against countries out of the Trading Blocs –
• Groups not within the Blocs have to pay Tariffs in order to transfer goods
• Countries within the Blocs have to pay higher price to buy goods input from countries out of the Blocs
• May take over local producers
• Workers are often exploited by global companies and paid low wages for long hours



Introduction to Macroeconomics 1


Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that focuses on the behavior and decision-making of an economy as a whole. It describes and explains economic processes that concern aggregates. An aggregate is a multitude of economic subjects that share some common features. By contrast, microeconomics treats economic processes that concern individuals.
For example, the decision of a firm to purchase a new office chair from company
X is not a macroeconomic problem. The reaction of Austrian households
to an increased rate of capital taxation is a macroeconomic problem.

From the foregoing, macroeconomists study aggregated indicators such as GDP, unemployment rates, and price indices to understand how the whole economy functions.  They develop models that explain the relationship between such factors as national income, output, consumption, unemployment, inflation, savings, investment, government spending and international trade.

Though macroeconomics encompasses a variety of concepts and variables, but there are three central topics for macroeconomic research on the national level: output, unemployment, and inflation.   Macroeconomics investigates aggregate behavior by imposing simplifying assumptions (“assume there are many identical firms that produce
the same good”) but without abstracting from the essential features.
These assumptions are used in order to build macroeconomic models. Typically,
such models have three aspects: the ‘story’, the mathematical model,
and a graphical representation.


The issues addressed by macroeconomics are as follows;

  • What determines a nation’s long-run economic growth?
  • What causes a nation’s economic activity to fluctuate?
  • What causes unemployment?
  • What causes prices to rise?
  • How does being a part of a global economic system affect nations’ economies?
  • Can government policies be used to improve economic performance?


Thermal Comfort 1

What is Thermal Comfort?

Thermal comfort describes the human satisfactory perception of the thermal environment. It refers to a number of conditions in which the majority of people feel comfortable. Thermal comfort is rated amongst the most important conditions for improving comfort and satisfaction of occupants with their indoor environment, based on a review of various studies

It is the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation. Thermal comfort is the occupants’ satisfaction with the surrounding thermal conditions and is essential to consider when designing a structure that will be occupied by people.


Factors Affecting Human Comfort

There are six factors to take into consideration when designing for thermal comfort. Its determining factors include the following:

  • Metabolic rate (met): The energy generated from the human body
  • Clothing insulation (clo): The amount of thermal insulation the person is wearing
  • Air temperature: Temperature of the air surrounding the occupant
  • Radiant temperature: The weighted average of all the temperatures from surfaces surrounding an occupant
  • Air velocity: Rate of air movement given distance over time
  • Relative humidity: Percentage of water vapor in the air

The environmental factors include temperature, radiant temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity. The personal factors are activity level (metabolic rate) and clothing.

Thermal comfort is calculated as a heat transfer energy balance. Heat transfer through radiation, convection, and conduction are balanced against the occupant’s metabolic rate. The heat transfer occurs between the environment and the human body, which has an area of 19 ft(1.81 m2) .  If the heat leaving the occupant is greater than the heat entering the occupant, the thermal perception is “cold.” If the heat entering the occupant is greater than the heat leaving the occupant, the thermal perception is “warm” or “hot.”

A method of describing thermal comfort was developed by Ole Fanger and is referred to as Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD).

Ref: Autodesk 2017 and ecophon group



A thermodynamic system, or simply system, is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study.  The region outside the system is called the surroundings.  The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary.  The boundary of a system may be fixed or movable.

Surroundings are physical space outside the system boundary.


Systems may be considered to be closed or open, depending on whether a fixed mass or a fixed volume in space is chosen for study.

A closed system consists of a fixed amount of mass and no mass may cross the system boundary.  The closed system boundary may move.

Examples of closed systems are sealed tanks and piston cylinder devices (note the volume does not have to be fixed).  However, energy in the form of heat and work may cross the boundaries of a closed system.


An open system, or control volume, has mass as well as energy crossing the boundary, called a control surface.  Examples of open systems are pumps, compressors, turbines, valves, and heat exchanger.


An isolated system is a general system of fixed mass where no heat or work may cross the boundaries.  An isolated system is a closed system with no energy crossing the boundaries and is normally a collection of a main system and its surroundings that are exchanging mass and energy among themselves and no other system.


Introduction to Thermodynamics 1

What is thermodynamics:

Thermodynamics is a science and, more importantly, an engineering tool used to describe processes that involve changes in temperature, transformation of energy, and the relationships between heat and work.

Thermodynamics is concerned with the ways energy is stored within a body and how energy transformations, which involve heat and work, may take place.  One of the most fundamental laws of nature is the conservation of energy principle.  It simply states that during an energy interaction, energy can change from one form to another but the total amount of energy remains constant.  That is, energy cannot be created or destroyed.


Any characteristic of a system in equilibrium is called a property.  The property is independent of the path used to arrive at the system condition. Some thermodynamic properties are pressure P, temperature T, volume V, and mass m.

Properties may be intensive or extensive.

Extensive properties are those that vary directly with size or extent of the system. Some Extensive Properties

  1. mass
  2. volume
  3. total energy
  4. mass dependent property.

Intensive properties are those that are independent of size or the amount of material in the system

Some Intensive Properties

  1. temperature
  2. pressure
  3. age
  4. color
  5. any mass independent property


Extensive properties per unit mass are intensive properties. For example, the specific volume v, defined as


and density ρ, defined as;


are intensive properties.


Maintaining the proper air quality level is essential for keeping compressed air energy costs down and to ensure reliable production. Poor air quality can have a negative effect on production equipment and can increase energy consumption and maintenance needs. The quality of air produced should be guided by the quality required by the end-use equipment


  1. Dust collectors
  • Electrostatic precipitator
  • Fabric collectors
  • Wet collectors
  • Dry centrifugal collectors

2. Air filters


The selection of air filtration equipment is based on;

  • Efficiency
  • Dust holding capacity
  • Pressure drop


Straining:  straining occurs when a particle is larger than the opening between fibers and cannot pass through. It is a very ineffective method of filtration because the vast majority of particles are far smaller than the spaces between fibers.

Impingement:  when air flows through a filter, it changes direction as it passes around each fiber. Larger dust particles, however, cannot follow the abrupt changes in direction because of their inertia. As a result, they do not follow the air stream and collide with a fiber. Filters using this method are often coated with an adhesive to help fibers retain the dust particles that impinge on them.

Interception:  interception is a special case of impingement where a particle is small enough to move with the air stream but, because its size is very small in relation to the fiber, makes contact with a fiber while following the tortuous air flow path of the fiber.

Diffusion:  diffusion takes place on particles so small that their direction and velocity are influenced by molecular collisions. These particles do not follow the air stream, but behave more like gases than particulate. Diffusion is the primary mechanism used by most extremely efficient filters.

Electrostatic:  A charged dust particle will be attracted to a surface of opposite electrical polarity. Most dust particles are not electrically neutral, therefore,  electrostatic attraction between dust particle and filter fiber aids the collection of efficiency of all barrier type air filters.



A force exerted on a body can cause a change in either the shape or the motion of the body. The unit of force is the newton*, N. No solid body is perfectly rigid and when forces are applied to it, changes in dimensions occur. Such changes are not always perceptible to the human eye since they are so small.

The three main types of mechanical force that can act on a body are:

(i) tensile

(ii) compressive and;

(iii) shear

Tensile is a force that tends to stretch a material.A tensile force, i.e. one producing tension, increases the length of the material on which it acts.

Compression is a force that tends to squeeze or crush a material.A compressive force, i.e. one producing compression, will decrease the length of the material on which it acts.

Shear is a force that tends to slide one face of the material over an adjacent face. A shear force can cause a material to bend,slide or twist.


Image result for tensile shear force




The Nucleus.

Strong nuclear force holds neutrons and protons together to form a nucleus

Review of Atomic Terms •

Nucleons – particles found in the nucleus of an atom – neutrons and protons

  • Atomic Number (Z) – number of protons in the nucleus
  • Mass Number (A) – sum of the number of protons and neutrons
  • Isotopes – atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers
  • Nuclide – each unique atom.

KEYNOTE: Each Isotope has its own characteristic half-life. The rate of decay for an isotope is constant. It is unaffected by pressure, Temperature, Magnetic and Electric field, Chemical Reaction…

Radius Of the Nucleus.

Image result for radius of a nucleus

  Where A is the Atomic Mass, Fm is femtometer, it stands for 10 raised to the power of -15

The diameter of a Nucleus is D = 2r


Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by the French physicist, Henri Becquerel working in Paris. In 1896, Henri Becquerel discovered, almost by accident, that uranium can blacken a photographic plate, even in the dark.

Radioactivity is the process by which nuclei emit particles and rays These penetrating particles and rays are called radiation.

Radioactivity is a phenomenon that occurs naturally in a number of substances. Atoms of the substance spontaneously emit invisible but energetic radiations, which can penetrate materials that are opaque to visible light. The effects of these radiations can be harmful to live cells but, when used in the right way, they have a wide range of beneficial applications, particularly in medicine.

Unstable isotopes can become stable by releasing different types of particles.

  • This process is called radioactive decay and the elements which undergo this process are called radioisotopes/radionuclides.

Therefore, Radioactive decay is a process by which the nuclei of a nuclide emit α, β or γ rays. A few naturally occurring isotopes and all of the man-made isotopes are unstable.

Uranium emits very energetic radiation – it is radioactive.


Black Body Radiation

A black body is an idealised physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence

Blackbody radiation” or “cavity radiation” refers to an object or system which absorbs all radiation incident upon it and re-radiates energy which is characteristic of this radiating system only, not dependent upon the type of radiation which is incident on it. The radiated energy can be considered to be produced by standing wave or resonant modes of the cavity which is radiating.

A simple example of a black body radiator is the furnace. If there is a small hole in the door of the furnace heat energy can enter from the outside. Inside the furnace, this is absorbed by the inside walls. The walls are very hot and are also emitting thermal radiation.

The amount of radiation emitted in a given frequency range should be proportional to the number of modes in that range. The best of classical physics suggested that all modes had an equal chance of being produced and that the number of modes went up proportional to the square of the frequency.

Stars approximate blackbody radiators and their visible colour depends upon the temperature of the radiator. The curves show blue, white, and red stars. The white star is adjusted to 5270K so that the peak of its blackbody curve is at the peak wavelength of the sun, 550 nm. From the wavelength at the peak, the temperature can be deduced from the Wien displacement law.

Wien’s Displacement Law

When the temperature of a blackbody radiator increases, the overall radiated energy increases and the peak of the radiation curve moves to shorter wavelengths. When the maximum is evaluated from the Planck radiation formula, the product of the peak wavelength and the temperature is found to be a constant.

For a blackbody radiator, the temperature can be found from the wavelength at which the radiation curve peaks.

How does a blackbody look like?

A blackbody is usually made of two parts linked through a cable:

  • emissive head: including an emissive surface coated with a highly emissive coating or a cavity. An accurate temperature sensor is inserted into the emissive surface or cavity measuring the temperature of the source in real time. Depending on the temperature range the emissive head is also equipped with heating and/or cooling means.
  • electronic controller: which brings power to the heating/cooling meanwhile acquiring and displaying the temperature of the emissive surface in real time. The electronic controller is equipped with accurate servo control loop for high-stability temperature regulation.

Application Of Black Body Radiation

The main applications are of course IR sensors calibration and their specifications measurement.

Infrared sensors are electro-optical devices that convert thermal radiation received into an electrical signal to give a temperature measurement. These systems can be used in many applications: in the security sector, for surveillance purposes, and the civilian sector, for industrial non-contact thermal monitoring. From the basic pyrometers to more complex IR imaging systems, these devices have to be accurately tested, during the development phase, as well as during manufacturing and commissioning. They have to be calibrated prior to delivery and then periodically in the field.

Rescue Operation For a Collapsed Building

Five Stages Of Rescue Operations In a Collapsed Building


The first stage is Reconnaissance which is divided into two parts, Information and Observation. The Information part is the gathering and documenting all of the available data to assist in making an intelligent rescue action plan.

This Data should include: • Time and all factors surrounding the collapse. • Numbers of persons suspected in building at the time of collapse. • Type of structure, date built, if blueprints are available, and if so, where. • Hazards known, and what can and is being done about them. • Service locations of power, water, gas, etc. • Number of persons who made it out before the structure collapsed and how they got out. • Number of persons who got out after collapse and how they got out, as well as the damage and injuries they noticed. • Local knowledge, is it available about the building, if so, who and where. • If a disaster plan was used during the collapse and it’s success. • Locations of dense populations in the building for that time of day. • Resources that could be used to assist in the rescue operation: tools, medical kits, fire equipment, etc. • Available rescuers and resources that are on site now. • Rescue resources that will be onsite and when • Rescue resources that can be called in and how. • Any other information that can be gathered prior to entering structure.


As the Stage 1 staff record all building data such as hazards and stability, the Stage 2 personnel mark exit routes and get walking wounded in the correct direction to get out to the triage area.

In Stage 2 personnel are also responsible for the assessment regarding victims trapped in the building. They will document and mark [spray paint] the locations and degree of entrapment of the trapped victims. No rescue is carried out in Stage 2 other than assisting the walking wounded to the triage area in the safe zone. This is because a large picture must be developed prior to rescuing anyone in the collapse, to ensure the right resources get to the most easily accessible persons first. Save as many (as fast as we can) before spending 15 hours for one person requiring 75 ton air bags.


Stage 3 involves the further exploration of survival points. The teams are now sent to the densely populated areas inside the building which only light entrapment is suspected. The stage 3 teams will take with them a very long line up of volunteers, all given single simple tasks. These tasks are: • Stretcher bearers [marked on their clothes with “S” front and back] • Debris haulers • Runners [marked with “R” front and back] • Tool persons Since there are so many persons that want to help and so much menial labour to be done, the volunteers are named with their function, and are taught only one task.  

The job of the Stage 3 search team is to get only lightly [very lightly] entrapped and unable to walk victims out, and locate and document voids that persons may be trapped in. These voids will not be searched at this time but will be well marked and documented for the next stages of the rescue. The primary goal of the Stage 3 teams is to find and remove all surface causalities. All Stage 3 teams should be in the safe zone prior to starting Stage 4. Most of the saveable casualties will be saved in Stage 3 if time is not spent attempting to get at trapped persons [voids]. It is imperative that the volunteers be equipped with the basic safety items to prevent wasting resources on helping them and that they are appropriately chosen for the task they are given to carry out.


Stage 4 involves exploration of voids and selected debris removal. The Stage 4 personnel will go to the highest probability of survival areas identified by the Stage 3 teams, starting with the area suspected to have the highest number of entrapped persons first. Once at these locations they will start a subsurface search for survivors. The search usually starts with a call and listen. A call and listen is carried out with voice or hammer. With the hammer method a pipe or beam appearing to go into the void in question which would transmit vibrations is struck solidly three times then a minute of silence is observed by all in the team. If required, the Stage 4 team will use small tools and light hydraulics for selected debris removal to gain access to the voids. Stage 4 teams will document any areas that will require further exploration with heavy equipment or rescue specialists. The same types of volunteers will be needed to follow the trained rescuers as were used in Stage 3. Often it is this stage that electronic subsurface search gear is used and those personnel operating this type of equipment will have special demands of the search teams. This must be discussed at the team briefing prior to starting the search areas. Stage 4 will require advanced urban search technicians, as they will be venturing into unstable areas of the building, and may be required to use technical equipment such as: S.C.B.A., Sniffers, Rope Gear, etc.


Stage 5 requires all teams evacuate the building and only one Stage 5 team is usually allowed to work in the structure at one time. This is due to the heavy equipment that will be used to gain access to all voids and subsurface areas that may contain casualties, alive or dead. The main objective of the highly trained Stage 5 rescuers is to systematically remove debris to gain access to the remaining victims.

The areas identified by the Stage 4 search teams will be prioritized by the rescue manager, then access will be gained to these areas via appropriate means, such as: • Heavy debris removal with Hydraulics. • Trenching or Tunnelling using cutting tools. • Lifting or moving large masses with crane or backhoe. • Forcing with Air Bags. • Burning through walls with Electric Oxygen Plasma Cutters • etc.