RESCUE OPERATION

Rescue comprises responsive operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury during an incident or dangerous situation.

Tools used might include search and rescue dogs, mounted search and rescue horses, helicopters, the “jaws of life”, and other hydraulic cutting and spreading tools used to extricate individuals from wrecked vehicles. Rescue operations are sometimes supported by special vehicles such as fire department’s or EMS heavy rescue vehicle.

Overview
Ropes and special devices can reach and remove individuals and animals from difficult locations including:

Air-sea rescue
Cave rescue
Combat search and rescue
Confined space rescue
Mine rescue
Rope rescue
Search and rescue
Ski patrol
Surface water rescue
Swiftwater rescue
Urban search and rescue
Vehicle extrication
Wilderness
Rescue operations require a high degree of training and are performed by rescue squads, either independent or part of larger organizations such as fire, police, military, first aid, or ambulance service.

More on rescue operations check Rescue Operation For a Collapsed Building

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9 responses

    • There are different aspects to rescue operation based on the situation. Considering rescue operation on a collapsed building, the aspects will be:
      STAGE 1
      The first stage is Reconnaissance which is divided into two parts, Information and Observation. The Information part is the gathering and documenting all of the available data to assist in making an intelligent rescue action plan.
      After the Information phase has started the Observation phase begins. The Observation phase requires that trained personnel survey the entire building looking for any clues as to stability, hazards, areas of entrapment and possible entry points.
      STAGE 2
      As the Stage 1 staff record all building data such as hazards and stability, the Stage 2 personnel mark exit routes and get walking wounded in the correct direction to get out to the triangle area.
      STAGE 3
      Stage 3 involves the further exploration of survival points. The teams are now sent to the densely populated areas inside the building which only light entrapment is suspected.
      STAGE 4
      Stage 4 involves exploration of voids and selected debris removal. The Stage 4 personnel will go to the highest probability of survival areas identified by the Stage 3 teams, starting with the area suspected to have the highest number of entrapped persons first. Once at these locations they will start a subsurface search for survivors.
      STAGE 5
      Stage 5 requires all teams evacuate the building and only one Stage 5 team is usually allowed to work in the structure at one time. This is due to the heavy equipment that will be used to gain access to all voids and subsurface areas that may contain casualties, alive or dead.
      The main objective of the highly trained Stage 5 rescuers is to systematically remove debris to again access to the remaining victims.

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    • Rescue comprises responsive operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury during an incident or dangerous situation.
      Tools used might include search and rescue dogs, mounted search and rescue horses, helicopters, the “jaws of life”, and other hydraulic cutting and spreading tools used to extricate individuals from wrecked vehicles. Rescue operations are sometimes supported by special vehicles such as fire department’s or EMS heavy rescue vehicle.
      Rescue operations cover:
      the handling of emergency calls
      the issuing of warnings to the public
      the combating of impending accidents
      the protection of people, property and the environment against danger, and the rescue of accident victims
      the extinguishing of fires and damage limitation
      command, communication, service and other support functions relating to these tasks.

      Air-sea rescue is the coordinated search and rescue (SAR) of the survivors of emergency water landings as well as people who have survived the loss of their seagoing vessel. ASR can involve a wide variety of resources including seaplanes, helicopters, submarines, rescue boats and ships. Specialized equipment and techniques have been developed. Military and civilian units can perform air-sea rescue.
      Cave rescue is a highly specialized field of wilderness rescue in which injured, trapped or lost cave explorers are medically treated and extracted from various cave environments. Cave rescue borrows elements from firefighting, confined space rescue, rope rescue and mountaineering techniques but has also developed its own special techniques and skills for performing work in conditions that are almost always difficult and demanding.
      Mine rescue or mines rescue is the specialised job of rescuing miners and others who have become trapped or injured in underground mines because of mining accidents, roof falls or floods and disasters such as explosions caused by firedamp.
      Rope rescue is a subset of technical rescue that involves the use of Rope, be it steel or cable rope, or more commonly used nylon, polyester, or other type of rope. rope as it is called, is available in various types: Dynamic (stretches to absorb the shock of a falling lead climber or rescue professional) or Static (actually low stretch) which is most commonly used in rescue and industrial rope work. Anchoring includes using specialty anchors, as well as things as simple as a length of chain, cable, rope, or webbing wrapped around a pillar, tree, boulder, or such.
      Vehicle extrication is the process of removing a vehicle from around a person who has been involved in a motor vehicle accident, when conventional means of exit are impossible or inadvisable. A delicate approach is needed to minimize injury to the victim during the extrication. This operation is typically accomplished by using chocks and bracing for stabilization and hydraulic tools, including the Jaws of Life.

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    • Different Aspects of Rescue Operation.
      The Acronym R.E.P.O.R.T can be used to describe the different aspects of a rescue operation.
      The acronym assists in breaking down the differing phases of the technical rescue process to assist with resources, timelines and direction.
      It stands for:
      R- response
      E- evaluation
      P- pre-entry
      O- operations
      R- removal
      T- termination

      Every technical rescue operation goes through these six phases. Your department may utilize a different acronym, but essentially you will go through each to accomplish the completion of your specialized rescue event.

      R — Response
      The response phase of the call is broken down into two separate areas — the pre-dispatch and the responding phase. The pre-dispatch phase is that time when district familiarization, pre-planning and resource identification is paramount. You must know what hazards exist in your area, what options you will have to address those operational impacts and where you will get resources from to meet those impacts. The second phase, responding, is the time from when your crew is dispatched to a call to arrival. The company officer must be trained to know when to ask for additional resources and ask for it early. In addition, they should be aware of any special information that is known — such as ingress details, next-in unit instructions and staging areas — and communicate those details to incoming units.

      E — Evaluation
      Once on scene, your primary task will be to gather information. The first-in unit should conduct an initial approach assessment to determine hazards, type of emergency and additional resource requirements. After the approach assessment, the first arriving Company Officer should transmit a size-up report, implement the appropriate portions of the Incident Command System, establish staging locations, request appropriate resources, gather available information and conduct a risk/benefit analysis.

      It is critical to know if the incident involves actually rescuing viable patients or if this is a body recovery. This knowledge determines the pace and urgency of the operation, and more importantly determines the acceptable level of risk in the risk/benefit analysis. Members should provide input into this ongoing analysis. Recovery operations undertaken by responders to recover the remains of victims or property should only be implemented when the risk to responders has been reduced to the lowest level possible.

      P — Pre-entry
      This step of the process of making the scene and surrounding area as safe as possible. The proper management of this phase of a technical consists of the following steps:
      Isolate — Initial company operations should include taking steps to secure the scene from unauthorized access or actions, as well as attempting to identify and secure a witness or responsible party. With each incident, isolation zones will need to be established to appropriately secure the scene — hot, warm and cold.
      Evacuate — Following the process of isolating the incident will often include evacuating people from the area of the rescue. These people will include Good Samaritan types, fellow workers, EMS, the press and onlookers.
      Lock Out/Tag Out — Lock out/Tag out is a system used to secure and isolate equipment from its source of energy while personnel are working on or near that equipment. While the rescue/extrication is taking place, a firefighter should be posted as a guard with a radio at the energy source.

      O — Operations
      This phase consists of the actual application of personnel and equipment to perform a rescue or recovery based on the risk/benefit assessment performed in the evaluation phase. Personnel who are certified at the operations level for the specific rescue being performed — rope, confined space, etc. — generally carry out this operation. While it is not essential that all personnel in an operational area be certified as operational, they do need to be directly supervised by an individual who is operations or technician certified. In addition, only those personnel who are integral in the operations and are actually working or delivering logistical needs should be inside the hot zone.

      R — Removal
      This phase of the technical rescue operation is the safe and effective removal of victims from the hot zone. This may require the collaboration of multiple disciplines to include rope rescue, EMS and extrication personnel. Remember also that specialized medical knowledge may be required to treat patients who may suffer from crush injuries and/or compartment syndrome secondary to structural or trench collapse.

      T — Termination
      The termination of a specialized rescue event is that time when rescue or recovery of a victim has occurred. The command team should take a short break to allow for members to rehab. It should also take this time to perform another risk/benefit analysis. Is the equipment in the hot zone worth the dangers required to remove them? This is especially critical when comparing the utilization of trench or structural collapse equipment. It may be better to detail the equipment left in the hot zone and bill the owners or contractor for their costs, rather than risk the loss of personnel. If the decision is made to remove equipment from a hot zone, remember to take your time! A large number of injuries and fatalities occur when in the termination phase of an event.

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    • Air-sea rescue (ASR or A/SR, also known as sea-
      air rescue [1] ) is the coordinated search and
      rescue (SAR) of the survivors of emergency water
      landings as well as people who have survived the
      loss of their seagoing vessel. ASR can involve a
      wide variety of resources including seaplanes ,
      helicopters, submarines , rescue boats and ships.
      Specialized equipment and techniques have been
      developed. Military and civilian units can perform
      air-sea rescue.

      Like

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