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      A trade bloc is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and others) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states. It is a group of countries within a geographical region that protect themselves from imports from non-members. A group of countries who have joined together to promote trade. This might be through relaxing protectionist barriers or even having a common currency. Examples of trading blocs include the EU(European Union), NAFTA( North American Free Trade Agreement) and ASEAN(Association of Southeast Asian Nations)
      • Firms can enjoy economies of scale, in a trading bloc, firms can produce goods and services with a lower average cost because trading blocs allows firm to have large scale of production
      • Trading blocs brings firms closer to each other and create greater competition, consumers will be benefited with better quality of goods and services in a lower price, they will have more choices
      • Firms within the bloc can enjoy a tariff free environment
      • Countries within the trading bloc can have more international bargaining power

      • unfair against countries out of the Trading Blocs –
      • Groups not within the Blocs have to pay Tariffs in order to transfer goods
      • Countries within the Blocs have to pay higher price to buy goods input from countries out of the Blocs
      • May take over local producers
      • Workers are often exploited by global companies and paid low wages for long hours

      Liked by 1 person

    • It is an imaginary line on the earth’s surface, near the equator, at all points on which there is no magnetic dip, (Also called) aclinic line. magnetic field. n a field of force surrounding a permanent magnet or a moving charged particle, in which another permanent magnet or moving charge experiences a force.

      Gravity and magnetism propagate through different types of particles, according to the standard model. While magnetism travels through photons, gravity propagates through gravitons (these have not been observed). The force charges of these two are based on the magnetic field strength and mass. As such, magnetism can both attract and repulse, while gravity can only attract (gravity is the only force to do this).
      Magnetism is very intricately linked to electricity (think electromagnets). Therefore, the strength of the magnetic pull is based on the strength of the electromagnetic field propagating around the point, while gravity is only based on mass. And because the electromagnetic force is so much greater than the force of gravity, a magnet can potentially overcome the force of gravity.


  1. (1)write on the history of boxing
    (2)write on boxing in Nigeria
    (3 )list the skills and techniques in boxing
    (4) state the rules and regulations in boxing


      Boxing, often called “the manly art of self-defense,” is a sport in which two competitors try to hit each other with their glove-encased fists while trying to avoid each other’s blows. The competition is divided into a specified number of rounds, usually 3 minutes long, with 1-minute rest periods between rounds. Although amateur boxing is widespread, professional boxing has flourished on an even grander scale since the early 18th century.

      Boxing originated when a person first lifted a fist against another in play. Different eras of the sport have been distinguished by the use or nonuse of fist coverings. The ancient Greeks believed fist fighting was one of the games played by the gods on Olympus; thus it became part of the Olympic Games in about 688 BC. Homer has a reference to boxing in the Iliad. During Roman times the sport began to thrive on a wide scale. Boxers fought with leather bands around their fists for protection and sometimes wore metal-filled, leather hand coverings called cesti, resulting in bloody, often duel-to-death, battles. Boxing diminished after the fall of Rome. It was revived in the 18th century in England and became especially popular during the championship reign of James Figg, who held the heavyweight title from 1719 through 1730. Boxing became a workingman’s sport during the Industrial Revolution as prizefights attracted participants and spectators from the working class. Organization was minimal at first, and the bouts of those eras resembled street fights more than modern boxing.

      Amateur fights consist of 3 rounds. professional fights from 4 to 15 rounds. The recognized length of championship fights is 12 rounds. In most countries, professional boxing is the more popular version, but the rules vary because there is no true governing body. Even in the United States, boxing regulations vary from state to state.
      In all boxing, however, winners are determined either by a decision of the judges (who keep points or round victors on a scorecard as the fight progresses), the referee, or both.
      The winner also may be decided by a knockout, in which one rival is sent to the floor by a punch and cannot get up within 10 seconds. A doctor or referee can declare the boxer injured or defenseless even if there is no knockdown. A tied or even match is ruled a draw.
      The golden rules of boxing footwork
      Good footwork is important to enable the boxer to defend or attack from a balanced position. The golden rules of boxing footwork are as follows:
      Keep the weight balanced on both feet.
      Keep your feet apart as you move to maintain good balance.
      Move around the ring using short sliding steps on the balls of your feet.
      Never let your feet cross.
      Always move the foot closest to the direction in which you want to move first.
      The key to good footwork is speed, and this can be enhanced by improving fitness, with particular attention to the legs. One good activity for improving fitness, used by many boxers, is skipping.
      There are four main punches in boxing:
      Jab — a sudden punch.
      Cross — a straight punch.
      Hook — a short side punch.
      Uppercut — a short swinging upward punch.
      The jab (left jab)
      This is the simplest but most-used punch in boxing, and likely to be the first punch any beginner would learn. The jab can be used both for attack or defense, and is useful to keep the opponent at bay to set up bigger blows.
      Hold your left hand up high with your elbow in close to your body.
      Aim for the opponent’s chin with the back knuckles.
      Rotate the arm so that the punch lands with the thumb making a small clockwise turn inwards.
      Slide the left foot forward before impact and snap the hand back ready to deliver another jab.
      The chin should be dropped to the shoulder to protect it, and the right hand held high ready to block any counter punches.
      The cross

      A ‘straight right’
      This is the most powerful and damaging punch, but it may leave the boxer open to a counterattack if it fails to connect. It is best used in a combination of punches, usually after the opponent’s defense has opened up after being hit with a good left jab.
      Drive off the back foot and pivot the hips and shoulders into the punch for maximum power.
      Straighten the right arm so that it is at full stretch on impact.
      Keep the left hand in a guarding position to avoid a counter.
      A ‘straight left’
      This is a good way of keeping an opponent on the back foot.
      From the basic stance simply straighten your left arm and twist your hips and shoulders into the punch.
      The first will automatically twist so the knuckles are up and the palm downwards just before impact.
      If there is room, slide the left foot forward for the blow, but quickly bring up the right foot to maintain balance.
      The hook comes from the side so can catch the opponent unaware as it initially comes from out of their vision. The hook requires the boxer to arch and turn their body into a punch. It can be made with either the left or right arm.
      A right hook
      Bring the chin down to the inside of the left shoulder to protect it.
      Pivot the toes, hips and hand in the direction of the punch.
      Turn your hand over so that at the point of impact, the palm faces down.
      The uppercut can be a great knockout punch and is delivered at close quarters. It comes up from underneath, has an element of surprise, and is usually aimed at the jaw with either hand. One drawback is that if it doesn’t take the opponent out, there is a big chance they will be able to deliver a counterattack.
      To make a right uppercut, transfer the weight onto the right foot and twist the shoulders and hips to the left, bringing the right first directly up into the target.
      Leaning back too much will send the boxer off balance.


    • Logistics involves a wide set of activities dedicated to the transformation and distribution of goods, from raw material sourcing to final market distribution as well as the related information flows. Derived from Greek logistikos (to reason logically), the word is polysemic. In the Nineteenth century the military referred to it as the art of combining all means of transport, revictualling and sheltering of troops. In a contemporary setting, it refers to the set of operations required for goods to be made available on markets or to specific locations.
      The application of logistics enables a greater efficiency of movements with an appropriate choice of modes, terminals, routes and scheduling. The implied purpose of logistics is to make available goods, raw materials and commodities, fulfilling four major requirements related to order, delivery, quality and cost fulfillment. Logistics is thus a multidimensional value added activity including production, location, time and control of elements of the supply chain. It thus enables a better managerial level of space-time relations and as such an important aspect of transport geography. Logistics acts as the material and organizational support of globalization requiring a complex set of decisions to be made concerning an array of issues such as the location of suppliers, the transport modes to be used and the timing and sequencing of deliveries.The distinction between logistics and supply chain management can be subject to contention since the terms are often used interchangeably. Previously, logistics tended to focus on transportation and warehousing aspects, while supply chain management would consider sourcing and well as final distribution. In recent years the meaning of both has converged.

      Thus, logistics and supply chain management can be considered as similar and interchangeable terms. Activities comprising logistics include physical distribution; the derived transport segment, and materials management; the induced transport segment.

      Physical distribution is the range of activities involved in the movement of goods from points of production to final points of sale and consumption. It must insure that the mobility requirements of supply chains are entirely met. Physical distribution includes all the functions of movement and handling of goods, particularly transportation services (trucking, freight rail, air freight, inland waterways, marine shipping, and pipelines), transshipment and warehousing services (e.g. consignment, storage, inventory management), trade, wholesale and, in principle, retail. Conventionally, all these activities are assumed to be derived from materials management demands.

      Materials management considers all the activities involved in the manufacturing of commodities in all their stages of production along a supply chain. It includes production and marketing activities such as production planning, demand forecasting, purchasing and inventory management. Materials management must insure that the requirements of supply chains are met by dealing with a wide array of parts for assembly and raw materials, including packaging (for transport and retailing) and, ultimately, recycling and reusing discarded goods and commodities. All these activities are assumed to be inducing physical distribution demands.

      The evolution of supply chain management and the emergence of the logistics industry are mainly characterized by three features:

      Integration. A fundamental restructuring of goods merchandising by establishing integrated supply chains with integrated freight transport demand. According to macro-economic changes, demand-side oriented activities are becoming predominant. While traditional delivery was primarily managed by the supply side, current supply chains are increasingly managed by the demand.

      Time mitigation. Whereas transport was traditionally regarded as a tool for overcoming space, logistics is concerned with mitigating time. Due to the requirements of modern distribution, the issue of time is becoming increasingly important in the management of commodity chains. Time is a major issue for freight shipping as it imposes inventory holding and depreciation costs, which becomes sensitive for tightly integrated supply chains.

      Specialization. This was achieved by shifts towards vertical integration, namely subcontracting and outsourcing, including the logistical function itself. Logistics services are becoming complex and time-sensitive to the point that many firms are now sub-contracting parts of their supply chain management to what can be called third-party logistics providers (3PL; asset based). More recently, a new category of providers, called fourth-party logistics providers (4PL; non asset based) have emerged.


    • Members of the committee include Justice Alfa Saliu Belgore(chairman), Senator Udoma Udo Udoma (Vice-chairman), Chief Ebenezer Babatope, Mr. Ledum Mitee, Dr. Abubakar Saddique, Ms. Comfort Obi, Mr. Peter Esele, Prof. Oladipo Afolabi, Prof. Jerry Gana and Tessy Ikimi. Mr. G.O.S. Miri, Ambassador Babagana Kingibe, Ambassador Jibrin Chinade, Alhaji Abubakar Mustapha, Prof. Anya O. Anya, Dr. Chukwuemeka Ezeife, Alhaja Salimot Badru, Hajia Najatu Mohammed, Mr. Ferdinand Agu, Alhaji Wakil Mohammed and Halima Alfa.


    • Citizens in a country make up a country.Hence,their role is very vital.They contribute immensely by providing ideas,and even giving in to the ideas the government enforce.
      The role that the citizens play are being good people and helping other people succeed on what they are doing! A citizen’s role is to follow the rules and regulations of the state and live peacefully.
      In a nutshell; the citizen contribute to constitutional development in the following ways;
      1.The citizens vote for representatives. The citizen must be willing and ready to select a representative through voting in an election process.
      2.Contesting to represent people. The citizen can offer to represent his or her constituency, either as a representative or as a member of the constitution drafting committee.
      3.Initiate Memorandum. A citizen can perform through memorandum. A memorandum usually contains ideas related to the problems of the people and suggested solutions to it. It is usually in the form of a booklet.


    • The history of the 1999 constitution of nigeria.
      The political history of Nigeria indicates that Nigeria has been ruled by the military for about 30 years in the 46 years of post independence Nigeria. As a result, apart from the 1960 and 1963 constitutions, all other constitutions are products of military rule (1979, 1989 and 1999). The 1999 constitution was promulgated into law as a decree by the Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar regime. The constitution was approved by the Armed Forces Ruling Council following a report submitted by the Justice Niki Tobi Constitution Debate Coordinating Committee. The committee had only two months to consult Nigerians before presenting a draft to the military for approval. This is why the 1999 Constitution has been criticised by all sectors and shades of opinion in Nigeria as a military imposition. But beyond the process of making the 1999 Constitution which is essentially flawed, the content of the constitution leaves much to be desired and is not suited for deepening of democracy. It does not protect the rights of women adequately. There are no adequate provisions for independence of the electoral and other commissions. It is more unitary that a federal constitution. In response to all these, the executive arm of government, the legislature, civil society, intergovernmental organisations, international organisations and donor agencies have prioritized the reform of the 1999 constitution. There is some level of agreement in areas that need reform in the constitution although there are some contentious issues in the areas of religion, state police, affirmative action etc. However, one issue that has changed the pattern of the reform process is the issue of tenure regarding the agitation by some people for extension of the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo beyond the two terms that the constitution allows.
      Section 135 of the 1999 constitution clearly provides tenure of four years for any person elected under the constitution as president and section 137 disqualifies any person who “has been elected to such office at any two previous elections.” There are similar provisions for the office of the Governor in sections 180 and 182 of the 1999 constitutions. The supreme court of Nigeria has settled the matter of two previous elections clearly stating that it has to be two elections under the 1999 constitution. The 1999 elections and 2003 elections were held under the 1999 constitution and anyone elected as President and Governor in 1999 and 2003 are clearly disqualified by the 1999 constitution from contesting the 2007 elections. Therefore, President Obasanjo and Governors elected in 1999 and re-elected in 2003 are disqualified from contesting the 2007 elections.
      B. The features of the 1999 constitution
      Presidential form of government: The president of any country has the veto power (the power to reject any decision made by the Law-making body). He is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces in the country. In Nigeria, the president appoints the ministers that work with him. Every minister is a member of the cabinet. Note that the president can exercise his power directly or through the ministers, vice president or through other officers.
      Separation of powers: The three arms of government provided by the Nigerian government are: the executive, legislative and the judicial arms of government. These three arms of government are equal and independent on each other. Separation of powers is division of powers and functions of the government among the three independent and separate arms of government.
      Federalism: Nigeria is Federal Republic under the Constitution. It is made up of Federal Capital Territory which is Abuja, 36 states and 774 Local Government Areas. It also has six area municipal councils in the Federal Capital Territory.
      The rule of Law: This is the equality of all before the Law. Laws are reasonably justifiable in a democratic society. Rule of Law implies that a country is governed by civil Law or regular Law. That means Laws which are justifiable in a democratic society. It is rule of right and not rule of might.
      Supremacy of the constitution: This implies that the Constitution is supreme above any other rule or Law. If other Laws are inconsistent with the provision of the Constitution, the Constitutional Law shall prevail and the other Laws void.


    • The history of electoral bodies in Nigeria dates back to the post-independence era when the Electoral Commission of Nigeria (ECN) was established. This body was responsible for conducting the federal and regional elections of 1964 and 1965 respectively.
      The military coup in 1966 led to the dissolution of the body leading to the establishment of Federal Electoral Commission (FEDECO) in 1978. FEDECO organized and conducted the 1979 and 1983 General Elections. It was dissolved by the military junta of General Mohammadu Buhari in 31st December 1983.
      In 1987, another military junta led by General Ibrahim Babangida established the National Electoral Commission (NEC) with a mandate of overseeing the transition programme put in place by the administration with the aim of returning the country to civilian democratic rule. NEC conducted the general elections into all elective offices which included the presidential, national, state and local government elections in 1993.
      In December 1995 when late General Sani Abacha became Head of State, NEC was dissolved and subsequently replaced by the National Electoral Commission of Nigeria (NECON). NECON conducted the 1996 Local Government and National Assembly Elections. The sudden death of General Abacha 1998 inevitably brought about the death of NECON as is the tradition in the country.
      The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) was established by the transitional administration of Abdulsalami Abubakar the same year.


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